The Trivium method: (pertains to mind) – the elementary three.
 General Grammar,  Formal Logic,  Classical Rhetoric
 GRAMMAR — (Answers the question of the Who, What, Where, and the When of a subject.)
Discovering and ordering facts of reality comprises basic, systematic Knowledge- not only the rules developed and applied to the ordering of word/concepts for verbal expression and communication, but our first contact with conscious order as such. This is the initial, self-conscious technique used in properly (discursively or sequentially) organizing a body of knowledge from raw, factual data for the purpose of gaining understanding (through logic) and; thus, also organizing the individual human mind. It is the foundation upon which all other “methods of organization and order” are built.
Special grammar properly relates words to other words within a specified language like English, Russian, or Latin.
General grammar relates words to objective reality in any language and applies to all subjects as the first set of building blocks to integrated or fully mindful, objective knowledge. A body of knowledge which has been gathered and arranged under the rules of general grammar can now be subjected to logic for full understanding, which, emphatically, is a separate intellectual procedure.
 LOGIC — (Answers the Why of a subject.)
Developing the faculty of reason in establishing valid [i.e., non-contradictory] relationships among facts yields basic, systematic Understanding- it is a guide for thinking correctly; thinking without contradiction. More concisely, it is the art of non-contradictory identification. The work of logic is proof. Proof consists of establishing the truth and validity of a concept or proposition in correspondence with objective, factual reality by following a self-consistent chain of higher-level thought back down to foundational, primary concepts or axioms (i.e., Existence, Consciousness, and Causality). It is a means of keeping us in touch and grounded to objective reality in our search for valid knowledge and understanding. Logic brings the rhythm of the subjective thoughts of the mind, and the subsequent actions of the body, into harmony with the rhythm of the objective universe. The intention is to amicably synchronize individual mental processes, and their attendant actions, with the processes of our surrounding natural, factual existence over the period of a lifetime.
 RHETORIC — (Provides the How of a subject.)
Applying knowledge and understanding expressively comprises Wisdom or, in other words, it is systematically useable knowledge and understanding- to explore and find the proper choice of methods for cogently expressing the conclusions of grammar and logic on a subject in writing and/or oral argumentation (oratory). The annunciation of those conclusions is called a statement of rationale, the set of instructions deduced from the rationale for the purpose of application (of those conclusions) in the real world is called a statement of protocols.
The Trivium Method with Gene Odening,Gnostic Media Podcast episode #049 (start here)
Study notes: Download
General grammar with Dr. Michael Labossiere, Gnostic Media Podcast episode #063
Logical Fallacies (common types of errors in reasoning):
Fallacies are broken down into two categories: formal and informal. Formal fallacies are based strictly on the logical formation of an argument (deductive). Informal fallacies, which are the most commonly recognized and easiest to learn, take into account the non-logical content of an argument (inductive); are false for epistemological, dialectical or pragmatic reasons; and typically fall under three categories: relevance, presumption, and ambiguity. The first formation of logical fallacies comes to us from Sir Thomas Aquinas and “The Scholastics”.
Informal fallacies with Dr. Michael Labossiere, Gnostic Media Podcast episode #062
Dr. Michael Labossiere – 42 most common informal fallacies: http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/
List of 90 informal fallacies – http://www.don-lindsay-archive.org/skeptic/arguments.html
Extensive list of informal fallacies – http://changingminds.org/disciplines/argument/fallacies/fallacies_alpha.htm
Fallacies by their Latin names – http://changingminds.org/disciplines/argument/fallacies/fallacies_latin.htm
Formal and informal: (Intermediate to advanced)
Taxonomy of Logical Fallacies